The Pug resembles a miniature mastiff, but with a flat muzzle, boxy head, wrinkled skin and square body. This may explain why it was called the Dutch Mastiff or Dwarf Mastiff when it first appeared in Holland.

Two male show-quality Pugs
Photo courtesy of
History and origin
The Pug probably originated from the Orient but was brought to Europe as soon as the 16th century, probably by the Dutch East India Company.

Another theory is that the Pug was introduced to Holland by the Portugese soon after they opened sea trading routes with China around 1550.
The original Pug may have been larger with a more discernible muzzle, according to 18th and 19th century paintings and engravings.
Pug painting

This curly-tailed and flat-faced compact little dog is referred to as Multum in Parvo , "a lot of dog in a small space."

Typical Pug attributes are the mask (except in Black pugs), velvet ears, black moles, thumb mark and trace.
You can find a detailed description of the Pug's appearance here.
Coat Colors

The Pug's original color was fawn with a black mask and saddle mark and until the late 1800s the breed was only seen in this color. More about the Pug's colors.
The most likely explanation for ithe breed's name is the dog's facial resemblance to that of the marmoset monkeys that were popular pets of the early 1700s and were known as Pugs. More about the etymology of the breed's name (external link).

In Holland pugs became the symbol of the royalists (the Orangists) after a Pug, Pompey, saved the life of William the silent, Duke of Orange by alerting him in the middle of the night to the approaching Spanish troops in 1572 at the duke's camp.
Character, Health & Temperament

Although classified as a toy breed by the AKC the Pug is more solid and resistant than many other breeds in this group. With his great sense of humor it is a perfect family companion, patient, good-natured and very tolerant with children.  Like all small molosser breeds, pugs are usually less yappy than some other small dogs.
One major drawback of the breed is that Pugs tend to shed all year round, especially fawn-colored pugs.

Another (minor) downside of this breed is that pugs tend to be too exclusive in their relationships. They sometimes have difficulties in sharing their owner's affection and attention with anyone else.
Its only weakness is a tendency to enjoy its meals and treats too much and become overweight.
Black Pugs
(Pug dog, Carlino, Mops,
Mopshond, Mops hund)

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Civilizing your Puppy
by Barbara J. Wrede
More information:

Oil painting by Richand Ramsey Reinagle.
The Pug is much taller than present day examples, and has a much more discernible muzzle. Photo: W. Secord
Engraving from The Sportsman's Cabinet
Philip Reinagle, 1803
Photo courtesy: William Secord
Female Pug Gin Gin, Italy
Cute pug puppies
Famous pugs
Pugs in art
Funny pug pictures
Pug stuff
Pug Costumes and Apparel
Pug clothes
Black Pug Stuff
Related pages:
Famous Pugs: pugs and their famous people, famous pug names, etc.
Pug Names
: suggestions for Pug names
Pugs in art
Pug Health: health issues in Pugs
Funny pug pictures
Cute pug puppy pictures

Pug Stuff:
Black Pugs (external link)
Pug Books
Pug Lifestyle Books
Pug Home Decor Products
Pug T-shirts
Pug Calendars
More Pug Stuff: pug shirts, plush pugs, etc.

Pug Equipment:
Pug costumes for special occasions
(Halloween, Christmas, wedding, etc.)
Pug clothes and outfits

External links:
Etymology of the breed name Pug in different languages

Pug information
: complete info about Pugs and original articles about the Origins of the Pug, Pug colors and much more.

Pug colors: history and explanation of the different colors

Funny pug photos
, such as pugs dressed up for Halloween, pugs in hats, pugs in sunglasses, dressed-up pugs and cute pug puppies.
Pugs for Dummies
Pugs for Dummies
by Elaine Waldorf Gewirtz

Phil Maggitti
The Pug Handbook
The Pug Handbook
Brenda Belmonte
Juliette Cunliffe
Recommended Books
Halloween pug
Funny Pugs
Pugs with Sunglasses
Pugs in Hats